Everyone has a role to play in the chain of survival. All bystanders should act quickly and use mobile phones to alert dispatchers, with the ultimate goal of having immediate CPR given to all victims of cardiac arrest.
Untrained bystanders should still call 911 and provide Hands-Only CPR, or CPR without breaths, pushing hard and fast in the center of the chest to the rate of 100-120 compressions per minute. However, if the bystander is trained in CPR and can perform breaths, he or she should add breaths in a 30:2 compressions-to-breaths ratio.
How to Do CPR Step-by-Step
Remember the order when performing the steps of CPR. American Heart Association employs the short form ‘CAB’ — ‘Compressions, Airway, Breathing’ to help the rescuers in remembering the order when performing CPR.
Compressions – helps in restoring the blood circulation
- Lay the victim on his back on a hard surface
- Kneel beside him
- Now place the heel of your one hand right on the center of the victim’s chest. Place your other hand on top of your first hand. Now position your shoulder directly and straight above your and hand. Keep your elbows straight
- Utilize your full upper body weight and start compressing the chest. Push hard. Push the chest at the rate of around 100 compressions per minute.
If you are not a trained CPR, continue this compression method till professional help arrives. On the other hand; if you are trained in CPR, move on to the next step of clearing the airway and rescue breathing.
Airway – Clear the passage
If you have performed at least 30 compressions and if you are trained in CPR then it’s time for you to clear the victim’s airway passage by employing the head-tilt and chin-lift maneuver.
- Place your palm right on the person’s forehead. Tilt the head back gently
- Now with the other hand, lift the chin forward in order to open up the airway passage.
- Take 5-10 seconds to check for breathing. Take closer look at the chest motion, listen for breathing sounds and feel for his breath on your ear and cheeks.
Remember; gasping should not be considered as normal breathing. Check for breathing and if the victim is not breathing and if you trained in CPR then move on to ‘mouth-to-mouth’ breathing.
Breathing – mouth-to-mouth rescue breathing
Also known as rescue breathing it should be performed mouth to mouth or mouth to nose (if incase mouth can’t be opened due to injury or for any other reason)
- Using the chin lift and head tilt maneuver clear the airway passage
- Now shut the nostrils by gently pinching them
- Cover the victim’s mouth with your mouth
- Give 2 rescue breaths
Give the first rescue breath for 1 second and watch whether or not the chest rises. If the chest does not rise, use the chin lift and head tilt maneuver and give one more rescue breath.
Remember; 30 chest compressions followed by 2 rescue breaths = 1 CPR Cycle. Continue the CPR cycle till there are any clear signs of improvement or till medical help arrives.